Politics is one of the most widely known word in the world. The term is generally used to define the whole set of institutional arrangements, processes and social relationships which are employed by a society to reach political ends. Politics as a discipline has been around since the time of the ancient Greek philosophers who defined it as the interaction of individuals or groups to solve problems. However, unlike philosophy, politics is broader in terms of its scope. Rather than being focused on how individuals can arrive at solutions to problems, politics incorporates a wide range of issues and concerns such as power, freedom, justice, freedom, public good and so on.
In some senses, politics can be considered to be an abstract form of social science. In other ways, politics may be seen to be the study of how groups of people interact and form political institutions to satisfy their needs and desires. Politics thus encompasses a range of issues concerning the institutions created to ensure the protection of the public from any form of abuse or injustice. Politics is not about specific policies, but about the way power is administered, the distribution of it and the relationship between individuals and groups.
The concept of politics originated in ancient Greece. According to Aristotle, politics was the “ordering of the masses” through “rationally recognized rules.” Politics therefore can be regarded as the arrangement of society in relation to the political forces that determine the overall well-being of a society. Aristotle argued that political systems should be based on the “order of nature” rather than on “pleasure.” Politics, he claimed, is concerned with the distribution of wealth and power, with the welfare of the people as a group and the government’s ability to protect their interests.
Ancient peoples and civilizations tended to think of politics as an individual endeavor. Individuals engaged in political struggle to claim or defend territory, gain political and economic rewards, and protect their social status. Ancient peoples’ view of politics was therefore influenced by their ability to define and control the natural order through divine kings and natural disasters such as plagues and earthquakes. For this reason, they placed a high importance on political leadership, which was seen as authority vested in a particular group.
Ancient societies were highly organized in terms of political organization. The term “polity” was used to refer to the patterns of social organization, including political, religious, philosophical, and artistic activities. The polity thus covered various aspects of everyday life and human relationships. In classical Greece, the polity typically had a single city-state with its own governing council and established laws and social norms for the city-state. The polities in ancient Greece also had divine kings who served as the ultimate arbiters of societal decisions through the application of political principles and were sometimes thought to possess supernatural powers.
Modern politics has evolved since the introduction of the global economy, technological change, and the division of world powers. The modern political system today is characterized by multiparty politics, in which two or more competing political entities attempt to gain legitimacy through election processes. International politics became much more prominent during the period of World War II, when both the United States and Soviet Union sought to influence other countries through diplomacy and trade.
Throughout the period of classical politics, the members of the polity were drawn primarily from the ruling elite. They used their influence to secure their power and to ensure that the laws of their society were favorable to their class. Ancient societies also attempted to regulate politics through the creation of laws, literature, and religious scripture.
Politics is an unavoidable part of life. Without politics, there would be chaos, and war would be the rule rather than the exception. Modern people have a rather strange way of viewing politics; they seem to regard it as an abstract form of obligation that is given after-the-fact, and as something that must be fulfilled. However, politics is much more than this; it is about the distribution of power, and it is inherently political, even if one chooses to ignore its central aspect.